Uninvited and unwelcome: a brief introduction to early Lebanese migration to Australia

Unfortunately for the early Lebanese immigrants, their arrival in increasing numbers in the 1890s coincided with a period of economic decline and high unemployment exacerbated by a severe drought. Throughout the decade, the movement towards federation strengthened, bolstered by a burgeoning Australian nationalism that called for an exclusively white and predominately British, Australia. Non-Europeans were increasingly viewed as a threat and anti-Chinese legislation was extended to all Asian and coloured persons.